Tag Archive for: In-plan Roth conversion

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Roth IRA or In-Plan Conversion Deadline for 2022 Taxation

“My client wants to complete a Roth conversion. Is there a conversion deadline?”

ERISA consultants at the Retirement Learning Center (RLC) Resource Desk regularly receive calls from financial advisors on a broad array of technical topics related to IRAs, qualified retirement plans and other types of retirement savings and income plans, including nonqualified plans, stock options, and Social Security and Medicare. We bring Case of the Week to you to highlight the most relevant topics affecting your business.  A recent call with a financial advisor from Florida is representative of a common inquiry related to Roth conversion taxation.

Highlights of the Discussion

  • As with any tax-related question, I always start by suggesting individuals talk with their tax advisors regarding their personal financial situations.
  • According to IRS rules, the deadline for completing a Roth IRA or Roth in-plan conversion relates to the year in which your client wants to pay taxes on the conversion. A Roth conversion is taxable in the year it is completed. For example, in order to include the taxable portion of a Roth conversion in income for 2022, the conversion must be completed by December 31, 2022. There is no carryback period for a conversion as there is for making a regular Roth IRA contribution.
  • Note that the IRS just announced the new tax brackets for 2023, and while the same seven tax rates in effect for the 2022 tax year (i.e., 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35% and 37%) still apply for 2023, there were quite sizeable changes in the width of the income ranges for the various brackets. Therefore, it may be advantageous for your client to compare his 2022 tax bracket to his anticipated 2023 tax bracket when considering the timing for a Roth conversion. Of course, there are other factors that may affect his decision on timing, including how the income from the conversion will affect his applicable tax bracket.

Example:  Soleste and her husband are part of the married-filing-jointly tax-filing category.  For 2022, they anticipate their taxable income will be $180,000. That would put them in the 24% tax bracket. Looking ahead to 2023, they anticipate their taxable income will be about the same (i.e., $180,000). Because of the tax bracket changes for 2023, they will fall into the 22% tax bracket in 2023. Of course, they will have to consider whether the income generated from the conversion will affect which tax bracket applies.

Year/Filing Status Anticipated Income Income Range Tax Rate
2022 Married Filing Jointly $180,000 $178,151 to $340,100 24%
2023 Married Filing Jointly $180,000 $  89,451 to $190,750 22%

Source:  Revenue Procedure 2022-38

Conclusion

The deadline for completing a Roth IRA or Roth in-plan conversion depends on the year in which an individual wants to include the taxable portion of the Roth conversion in income. A Roth conversion is taxable in the year it is completed. To be taxable for a particular year, the conversion must be completed by December 31st.

 

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October–Think “Recharacterization Deadline”

Is it too late to recharacterize a Roth conversion for 2016?

ERISA consultants at the Retirement Learning Center Resource Desk regularly receive calls from financial advisors on a broad array of technical topics related to IRAs and qualified retirement plans.  We bring Case of the Week to you to highlight the most relevant topics affecting your business. A recent call with an advisor in New Jersey is representative of a common inquiry involving recharacterizations.

Highlights of discussions

A 2016 conversion to a Roth IRA, generally, can be undone (“recharacterized”) as late as October 16, 2017 [IRC Sec. 408A(d)(6)].  However, if your client completed a conversion of 401(k) assets to a designated Roth account within the 401(k) plan (rather than to an external Roth IRA), he or she would not be able to recharacterize the in-plan conversion, regardless of when the conversion occurred (IRS Notice 2010-84, Q&A 6.)

The IRS will allow taxpayers to recharacterize an unwanted Roth IRA conversion for any reason without tax or penalty as long as it is done by the deadline, which is generally October 15th of the year following the year of conversion. (If the time for completing the rechacterization falls on a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday, the deadline becomes the next businesses day. October 15, 2017, is a Sunday, so the deadline becomes the 16th IRC Sec. 7503.)

The recharacterization timeframe is connected to when your client filed his or her tax return. For a conversion to a Roth IRA completed in 2016, if your client filed his or her 2016 tax return on time (i.e., by April 17, 2017) he or she could recharacterize the unwanted conversion without tax or penalty at any time up to October 16, 2017. Of course, he or she would have to properly amend the 2016 tax return to reflect the recharacterization.

For a conversion completed in 2017, if your client files his or her 2017 tax return on time (i.e., by April 16, 2018) the individual would have until October 15, 2018, to recharacterize the unwanted conversion without tax or penalty.

To accomplish a recharacterization, your client would need to transfer the converted amount, along with any gains or losses, back to a traditional IRA within the prescribed IRS timeframe. Even in the case of a qualified plan-to-Roth IRA conversion, the rechacterization must go to a traditional IRA; it cannot go back to the original qualified plan (Treasury Regulation 1.408A-4, Q&A 3 and IRS Notice 2008-30, Q&A 5).

Following a recharacterization, your client has the option to “reconvert” a similar amount to a Roth IRA after satisfying the required waiting period for a “reconversion.” The required waiting period ends on the date that is the later of

  • 30 days after the recharacterization or
  • January 1 of the year following the conversion

EXAMPLE:

Thom converted a portion of his 401(k) plan assets in 2016 to a Roth IRA. He filed his 2016 tax return timely on April 17, 2017. Thom elects to recharacterize his 2016 Roth IRA conversion to a traditional IRA by October 16, 2017, and amends his 2016 tax return. The soonest Thom could reconvert a similar amount would be November 15, 2017.

As a rule of thumb, if a client converts and recharacterizes in the same year, he or she must wait until the following year to reconvert.

Conclusion

The IRS’ Roth IRA conversion/recharacterization/reconversion rules give taxpayers a great deal of flexibility if the proper process steps are completed within the set deadlines. Clients who are contemplating any of the three actions should carefully discuss them with their tax advisors.

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Federal Withholding on an In-Plan Roth Conversion

“How do the federal withholding rules apply to an in-plan Roth conversion in a 401(k) plan?”

ERISA consultants at the Retirement Learning Center Resource Desk regularly receive calls from financial advisors on a broad array of technical topics related to IRAs and qualified retirement plans. We bring Case of the Week to you to highlight the most relevant topics affecting your business.

Highlights of Discussion

  • The federal withholding rules for in-plan conversions to a designated Roth account in a 401(k) plan are similar to the rules that generally apply for eligible rollover distributions that are rolled over directly to another eligible plan versus rolled over indirectly (i.e., within 60 days) (Internal Revenue Code Section 3405). The IRS has provided specific guidance for in-plan Roth conversions in Notice 2013-74 Q&A 4.
  • If the conversion of assets in-plan is done as a direct rollover to the designated Roth account, and the participant does not receive any of the assets, the plan sponsor should not withhold taxes. Neither can a participant request voluntary withholding under IRC Sec. 3402(p). Since a conversion is generally a taxable event, a plan participant making a direct in-plan Roth conversion may need to increase his or her withholding or make estimated tax payments to avoid an underpayment penalty from the IRS.
  • In contrast, if a plan participant receives a distribution in cash from the plan, the plan sponsor must withhold 20 percent federal income tax even if the participant later rolls over the distribution to a designated Roth account within 60 days. Because plan sponsors do not apply federal income tax withholding to a direct in-plan Roth conversion, a plan participant may need to increase his or her withholding or make estimated tax payments to avoid an underpayment penalty from the IRS.

Conclusion

Because plan sponsors do not apply federal income tax withholding to a direct in-plan Roth conversion, a plan participant may need to increase his or her withholding or make estimated tax payments to avoid an underpayment penalty from the IRS.

 

 

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