Print Friendly Version Print Friendly Version

Dual-Status Hospitals and Retirement Plans

“One of my plan sponsor clients is a hospital that has dual status as a tax-exempt entity and a governmental entity. Could the dual-status hospital have both a 403(b) plan and a 457(b) plan?

ERISA consultants at the Retirement Learning Center Resource Desk regularly receive calls from financial advisors on a broad array of technical topics related to IRAs, qualified retirement plans and other types of retirement savings and income plans, including nonqualified plans, stock options, and Social Security and Medicare.  We bring Case of the Week to you to highlight the most relevant topics affecting your business.

A recent call with an advisor in Colorado is representative of a common inquiry regarding governmental and tax-exempt entities.

Highlights of Discussion

Dual-status entities could include governmental hospital organizations that have received a determination letter from the IRS stating it is exempt from taxes under IRC Sec. 501(c)(3) and that it also qualifies as an affiliate of a government unit as described in Rev. Proc. 95-48.

Yes, a governmental entity that also satisfies the requirements of IRC Sec. 501(c)(3) (i.e., a dual-status entity) may maintain both a 403(b) plan and a 457(b) plan. This was affirmed in the preamble to the proposed 403(b) regulations (see page 67078 of REG–155608–02).

“Under sections 457(b)(6) and 457(g), an entity that is both an instrumentality of a State and a section 501(c)(3) organization can have an eligible plan under section 457(b) only if it is funded. However, under section 403(b)(1)(A)(i) and (ii), an entity that is both an instrumentality of a State and a section 501(c)(3) organization could cover any of its employees, regardless of whether they are performing services for a public school.”

That means, any employee that is eligible to participate in both the 403(b) plan and the 457(b) plan would have two separate deferral limits and, potentially, would be able to essentially “double up” on elective deferral contributions (See PLR-145997-08). The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA), effective after December 31, 2001, no longer imposes any requirement to reduce the maximum amount that an individual may defer under a 457(b) plan by any amount contributed for such individual to a different type of deferral plan such as a 403(b) plan.

A word of caution:  It is important for a dual-status hospital to make sure it satisfies the requirements of IRC Sec. 501(r)(1) as well as  Revenue Ruling 69-545. In recent years, the IRS has revoked a hospital’s tax-exempt status under IRC Sec. 501(c) for failing to comply with IRC Sec. 501(r)(1) (PLR 201829017). For more information see Charitable Hospitals – General Requirements for Tax-Exemption Under Section 501(c)(3).

Conclusion

It is possible for a governmental entity that also satisfies the requirements of IRC Sec. 501(c)(3) (i.e., a dual-status entity) to maintain both a 403(b) plan and a 457(b) plan.

 

 

© Copyright 2024 Retirement Learning Center, all rights reserved
Print Friendly Version Print Friendly Version

Designated Roth Account Rollover and Five-Year Rule

“My client participates in a 401(k) plan, has a Designated Roth account and wants to roll over the Designated Roth account to a Roth IRA. Can my client count the time in the 401(k) plan towards the five-year waiting period for the Roth IRA needed for taking qualified distributions?”

ERISA consultants at the Retirement Learning Center Resource Desk regularly receive calls from financial advisors on a broad array of technical topics related to IRAs, qualified retirement plans and other types of retirement savings and income plans, including nonqualified plans, stock options, and Social Security and Medicare. We bring Case of the Week to you to highlight the most relevant topics affecting your business.

A recent call with an advisor in Pennsylvania is representative of a common inquiry regarding Designated Roth contributions in a 401(k) plan.

Highlights of Discussion
The short answer is, surprisingly, “No.” If your client rolls over his or her 401(k) plan Designated Roth account assets to a Roth IRA, the time spent in the Designated Roth account will not carry over to the Roth IRA (IRS Treasury Regulation § 1.408A–10, Q&A 4).

That means, if your client established his or her first Roth IRA with the rollover of Designated Roth account assets, the five-year period for determining qualified distributions from the Roth IRA would begin that year. In essence, the five-year period for determining qualified distributions in the 401(k) plan is determined separately from the five-year period for determining qualified distributions in the Roth IRA.

It’s another one of those “earlier of” scenarios for the Roth IRA and the five-year period §1.408A–6, Q&A 2. The five-year period for the Roth IRA begins with the earlier of the taxable year in which

• The first Roth IRA contribution (or conversion) is made to any Roth IRA owned by the individual, or
• A rollover contribution of a Designated Roth account is made to a Roth IRA.

Conclusion
The five-year period for determining qualified distributions from a 401(k) plan Designated Roth account is determined separately from the five-year period for determining qualified distributions in a Roth IRA. For that reason, it may be advantageous for investors to make a Roth IRA contribution sooner rather than later in order to put the five-year clock in motion in the Roth IRA.

 

© Copyright 2024 Retirement Learning Center, all rights reserved
Print Friendly Version Print Friendly Version

Remember the Saver’s Tax Credit

“Can you remind me of the special tax credit available for individuals who make retirement savings contributions, please?”

ERISA consultants at the Retirement Learning Center Resource Desk regularly receive calls from financial advisors on a broad array of technical topics related to IRAs, qualified retirement plans and other types of retirement savings and income plans, including nonqualified plans, stock options, and Social Security and Medicare.  We bring Case of the Week to you to highlight the most relevant topics affecting your business.

A recent call with an advisor in Nevada is representative of a common inquiry regarding available tax credits for personal contributions to eligible plans.

Highlights of Discussion

Absolutely, after all, it is tax time! IRA owners, retirement plan participants (including self-employed individuals) and others may qualify for the IRS’s “Saver’s Credit” for certain contributions made to eligible savings arrangements. Details of the credit appear in IRS Publication 590-A and here Saver’s Credit.

The credit

  • Equals an amount up to 50%, 20% or 10% of eligible taxpayer contributions up to $2,000 ($4,000 if married filing jointly), depending on adjusted gross income (as reported on Form 1040, 1040SR or 1040NR);
  • Relates to contributions taxpayers make to their traditional and/or Roth IRAs, or elective deferrals to a 401(k) or similar workplace retirement plan (other plans qualify so see full list below); and
  • Is claimed by a taxpayer on Form 8880, Credit for Qualified Retirement Savings Contributions.

Contributors can claim the Saver’s Credit for personal contributions (including voluntary after-tax contributions) made to

  • A traditional or Roth IRA;
  • 401(k),
  • Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees (SIMPLE) IRA,
  • Salary Reduction Simplified Employee Pension (SARSEP),
  • 403(b),
  • Governmental 457(b),
  • Federal Thrift Savings Plan,
  • ABLE account* or
  • Tax-exempt, union pension benefit plan under IRC Sec. 501(c)(18)(D).

In general, the contribution tax credit is available to individuals who

1) Are age 18 or older;

2) Not a full-time student;

3) Not claimed as a dependent on another person’s return; and

4) Have income below a certain level (see table that follows).

* The Achieving a Better Life Experience (ABLE) Act of 2014 allows states to create tax-advantaged savings programs for eligible people with disabilities (designated beneficiaries). Funds from ABLE accounts can help designated beneficiaries pay for qualified disability expenses on a tax-free basis.

2021 Saver’s Credit Income Levels

Credit Rate Married Filing Jointly Head of Household All Other Filers*
50% of your contribution AGI not more than $39,500 AGI not more than $29,625 AGI not more than $19,750
20% of your contribution $39,501 – $43,000 $29,626 – $32,250 $19,751 – $21,500
10% of your contribution $43,001 – $66,000 $32,251 – $49,500 $21,501 – $33,000
0% of your contribution More than $66,000 More than $49,500 More than $33,000

*Single, married filing separately, or qualifying widow(er)

The IRS has a handy on-line “interview” that taxpayers may use to determine whether they are eligible for the credit.

Conclusion

Every deduction and tax credit counts these days. Many IRA owners and plan participants may be unaware of the retirement plan-related tax credits for which they may qualify.

 

 

 

 

 

© Copyright 2024 Retirement Learning Center, all rights reserved
Print Friendly Version Print Friendly Version

“I’m confused about the deadlines for correcting 401(k) plan excesses. Can you give me quick tutorial?”

ERISA consultants at the Retirement Learning Center Resource Desk regularly receive calls from financial advisors on a broad array of technical topics related to IRAs, qualified retirement plans and other types of retirement savings and income plans, including nonqualified plans, stock options, and Social Security and Medicare.  We bring Case of the Week to you to highlight the most relevant topics affecting your business.

A recent call with an advisor in Minnesota is representative of a common inquiry regarding 401(k) plan nondiscrimination testing.

Highlights of Discussion

I’ll try my best to summarize, generally, but be sure to seek out tax and/or legal advice for actual plan situations. One of the characteristics that sets 401(k) plans apart from other defined contribution plans are the unique contribution limits that apply to employee salary deferrals and matching contributions, namely the actual deferral percentage (ADP) limit, the actual contribution percentage (ACP) limit, and the IRC Sec. 402(g) annual deferral limit.

I’ll cover the three following excesses in this space:

  1. ADP failures—where the highly compensated employees (HCEs) defer too much in relation to the nonHCEs and create “excess contributions” [IRC Sec. 401(k)(8)(b)]
  2. ACP failures—where matching and/or after-tax contributions are too high for HCEs in relation to those for nonHCEs and create “excess aggregate contributions” [IRC Sec. 401(m)(6)(B)]
  3. 402(g) failures—where plan participants, either HCEs or nonHCEs, defer above the annual limit and create “excess deferrals” [IRC Sec. 402(g)(3)]
401(k) Excess Correction Deadlines
Type of 401(k) Excess Time of Correction Consequences of Failing to Timely Correct
Excess Contributions (ADP test failure where HCEs defer too much compared to nonHCEs)

 

Or

 

Excess Aggregate Contributions (ACP test failure where HCEs’ matching and or after-tax contributions are too high compared to nonHCEs’)

 

Within 2½ months after plan year end (March 15th for a calendar year plan)

Issue corrective distributions to affected HCEs

 

 

 

Excess and earnings taxed in the year distributed

 

 

After 2 ½ months after plan year end

 

Two Corrective Options:

1. Issue corrective distributions to HCEs

or

2. Make a Qualified Nonelective Contribution/Qualified Matching Contribution to correct the failure

·     Excess and earnings taxed in the year distributed

·     Employer subject to a 10% penalty tax

After the end of the plan year following the year of the excess

 

·   Employer subject to a 10% penalty tax

·   Potential for plan disqualification

·   Correct through Employee Plans Compliance Resolution System (EPCRS)

 

If “eligible automatic contribution arrangement” Excess Contribution or Excess Aggregate Contribution

 

6 months following the end of the plan year (June 30 for calendar year plan)

 

Issue corrective distributions to affected HCEs

 

Excess and earnings taxed in the year distributed
After 6 months following the end of the plan year

 

Two Corrective Options:

 

1. Issue corrective distributions to HCEs or

2. Make a Qualified Nonelective Contribution/Qualified Matching Contribution to correct the failure

·   Excess and earnings taxed in the year distributed

 

·   Employer subject to additional 10% penalty tax

 

After the end of the plan year following the year of excess (December 31 for calendar year plan)

 

·      Employer subject to additional 10% penalty tax

·      Potential for plan disqualification

·      Correct through EPCRS

 

Excess Deferrals (402(g) failure, Pre-Tax and Designated Roth) On or before April 15th of year after deferral

Issue corrective distributions of excess deferrals, plus their earnings

·      Excess deferral taxed as income in the year deferred.

·      Earnings on excess taxed in the year distributed.

After April 15 of year following excess

 

·   Excess deferral taxed in the year deferred.

·   Both the excess deferral and earnings taxed in the year removed.

·   If excess deferrals result from deferrals to one or more plans maintained by the same employer, possible loss of qualified plan status

 

Amounts in excess of any one of these limits could have serious consequences for the employer, the participant and/or the plan as a whole. Plan penalties are costly to plan sponsors and every effort should be made to avoid them. But worse than paying the IRS an extra penalty fee is the potential loss of qualified status for the 401(k) plan. If the IRS disqualifies a plan, the plan sponsor loses the tax-saving benefits of the plan, and the assets become immediately taxable to the participants. Therefore, such excesses must be avoided and timely corrected when failures occur.

Conclusion

Treasury regulations contain clear steps and deadlines by which plan sponsors must correct 401(k) excesses. If done so timely, the plan sponsor can avoid additional penalties and potential plan disqualification. Corrections made after the specified deadlines must follow the terms of the IRS’s EPCRS.

© Copyright 2024 Retirement Learning Center, all rights reserved